Glencross, Bonnie, Warrick, Gary, Eastaugh, Edward, Hawkins, Alicia, Hodgetts, Lisa, and Lesage, Louis. 2017. Minimally Invasive Research Strategies in Huron-Wendat Archaeology: Working Towards a Sustainable Archaeology. Advances in Archaeological Practice, May.

ABSTRACT

The rapid pace of economic, political and social change over the past 150 years has framed and reframed archaeological practice in Ontario. Indigenous groups have become increasingly involved in and critical of archaeological research. Indigenous peoples who value archaeological investigation of ancestral sites, but also desire to protect their buried ancestors, have restricted archaeological excavation and the analysis of remains. Over the last decade, research and consulting archaeologists in Ontario, Canada have worked collaboratively with Indigenous peoples with an eye to developing sustainable archaeology practices. In the spirit of sustainable archaeology, a comprehensive research project and field school run by Wilfrid Laurier University is training the next generation of archaeologists to adopt investigative techniques that minimize disturbance of ancestral sites. Here we present the results of our surface, magnetic susceptibility and metal detecting surveys of a Huron-Wendat village site which pose minimally invasive solutions for investigating village sites in wooded areas. The water-sieving of midden soils in an attempt to recover 100 percent of cultural materials, and the analysis of archived collections also honor the values of Indigenous descendant communities by limiting additional invasive excavation.

Glencross, Bonnie, Gates, Conrad, Graham, Tamara, MacArthur, Jordon, Parliament, Taylor and Warrick, Gary. 2016. The (Ground) Truth About Metal Detecting: A Test of the Application of Metal Detecting on a Historic Period Huron-Wendat Village Site. Annual symposium Ontario Archaeological Society Symposium, Waterloo, Ontario (November 4-6th).

ABSTRACT

Metal detectors are valuable remote sensing tools. When used systematically, metal detector survey is an inexpensive and efficient method for investigating historical archaeological sites. The detected distribution of metal artifacts across a site can aid in determining artifacts missed by test pits, the location of site boundaries, midden deposits not visible on the surface, and settlement patterns. This paper presents the results of metal detector work conducted during the 2016 WLU field school at Ahatsistari, a Huron-Wendat village site located near Penetanguishene and dating to the early 17th century. A systematic metal detector and test pit survey was undertaken to determine the location and distribution of European-made metal artifacts for the purpose of defining the internal structure of the village. All detected subsurface objects were flagged, ground-truthed, and collected. The locations of all objects were recorded using a total station and their distribution mapped. The majority of detected objects were confirmed metal and identified as 17th century European trade artifacts. Several artifact clusters were recognized but additional work is needed to determine if these clusters indicate longhouse floors.

Glencross, Bonnie. 2016. Report on the Archaeological Field School at Ahatsistari (formerly Allen Tract BeGx-76), Lot 45 Military Reserve, Town of Penetanguishene, Simcoe County, Ontario,” on file, Ministry of Culture, Tourism, Sport, pp.1-182.

ABSTRACT

This report summarizes six weeks of fieldwork (May 20th – June 27th, 2014) carried out at Ahatsistari (formerly the Allen Tract BeGx-76) under the guise of a Wilfrid Laurier University (WLU) field school. The goals of this work were to determine the limits of the site, explore the internal structure of the village, and sample identified middens for the purpose of recovering artifacts and ecofacts that would contribute to our knowledge of the occupation of the site and more broadly Tay Point.

Glencross, Bonnie, Warrick, Gary, Anderson, Katherine, MacKinnon, Stefanie, Millar, Shannon, and Patterson, Samantha. 2015. The Chew Site (BeGx-9): A Case Study in the Value of Archived Collections. Ontario Archaeology 95:3-20.

ABSTRACT

The Chew site (BeGx-9) is located in Penetanguishene, Ontario. The only known artifact collection was acquired during 1972 excavations by a local high school. The collection, housed at Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, had not been documented except for site registration purposes. In the context of a Wilfrid Laurier University archaeological field school in May and June 2014, four senior undergraduate students examined and reported on the collection for a course credit. The students discovered that the Chew site collection contains artifacts relating to the late fifteenth- and early seventeenth-century Wendat village occupations, as well as to nineteenth century use. This paper will present the results of the artifact analyses and discuss the ongoing educational and evidential value of archived collections to the Huron-Wendat and to Ontario archaeology and history.

Glencross, Bonnie, Peterson, Neil and Warrick, Gary. 2015. The Beads of Ahatsistari: Mediums of Huron-Wendat and French Cross-cultural Exchange. Paper presented at joint symposium of the Ontario Archaeological Society and the Eastern States Archaeological Federation, Midland, Ontario (October 16-18th).

ABSTRACT

Beads originating from archaeological contexts constitute rich data sets. The focus of this presentation are the beads recovered during the 2014 Wilfrid Laurier University field school from Ahatsistari (Allen Tract site, BeGx-76), an early 17th century Wendat village on Tay Point, Ontario. Eighty-two beads of glass, shell, bone and stone were recovered from 1meter units sampled from seven midden locales, and identified using a modified version of the Kidd and Kidd (1970) system of classification. While still preliminary, we argue that the bead collection demonstrates high frequencies of blue and white forms and is representative of the GBP2 (ca 1600-1615 C.E.). We entertain the possibility that interactions and trade between the Wendat occupants of Ahatsitstari, their Aboriginal neighbours and Europeans was intense, and that Ahatsitstari is the historically referenced Carhagouha, principle town of the northern Attignawantan and an important site for trade with the French.

Anderson, Katherine, MacKinnon, Stefanie, Millar, Shannon, Patterson, Samantha, Glencross, Bonnie and Warrick, Gary. 2014. The Chew Site: A Case Study in the Value of Archived Artifact Collections.  Paper presented at Annual Meeting of Ontario Archaeological Society, Peterborough, Ontario (October 24-26th).

ABSTRACT

The Chew site (BeGx-9) is located in Penetanguishene, Ontario. The only known artifact collection was acquired during 1972 excavations by a local high school.  The collection, housed at Ste. Marie-among-the-Hurons, has not been documented except for site registration purposes.  In the context of a Wilfrid Laurier University archaeological field school directed by the authors in May-June 2014, four senior undergraduate students examined and reported on the collection for course credit.  Students discovered that the Chew site collection contains artifacts relating to early 15thcentury and early 17th century Huron-Wendat village occupations, as well as 19th century use. This paper will present the results of the artifact analyses and discuss the ongoing educational and evidential value of archived artifact collections to the Huron-Wendat, Ontario archaeology, and the history of Canada.

Glencross, Bonnie and Warrick, Gary. 2014. Minimally Invasive Techniques in Huron-Wendat Archaeology. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of Canadian Archaeological Association, London, Ontario (May 14-19th).

ABSTRACT

The rapid pace of economic, political and social change over the past 75 years has framed and reframed archaeological practice in Ontario. Most recently, Indigenous groups have become increasingly involved in, and critical of, archaeological research. Descendants of the Huron-Wendat who value archaeological investigation of their ancestral sites but desire to protect their buried ancestors, have placed restrictions on archaeological excavation and the analysis of remains. Practitioners conducting Huron-Wendat research archaeology and consulting archaeology have recognized this challenge and are beginning to develop a repertoire of alternative analytical techniques that are minimally invasive.

We describe a research design that defines village sites, and collects archaeological data with minimal excavation and disturbance of site deposits. Using a combination of non-invasive geophysical prospection, soil coring, auger hole testing, limited test excavation and the use of animal bones as surrogates for human remains, our research will contribute to the growing body of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of these techniques in Huron-Wendat archaeology. Most importantly, this approach will foster future research with the Huron-Wendat and other Indigenous groups in central Ontario by working collaboratively with them and developing alternative methods that minimize destruction of ancestral remains and respect Indigenous rights.

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